Consider societal systems as complex systems that are connected to physical, social, psychological human needs over time and in different contexts.
In groups, students analyse various photos of different settlements. Each group works on a different type of settlement in terms of region, context and time period, identifying the main key characteristics of the settlement and connecting these with the fulfilment of human needs as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors.
Each group presents the findings to the rest of the group. Then all the students discuss the differences and similarities between the various types of settlements over time in different regions and discuss whether the settlements, as systems, satisfy human, environmental and economic needs or not.
Brainstorm factors and indicators for a city or a community to be sustainable. Classify and discuss responses and consider why they are considered to be sustainable. Decide collectively on a set of sustainable indicators for a community/city.
In groups, create a model of a community or city that meets these indicators and then present it to the rest of the group.